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Monitoring of Programme Implementation




a)        National level half yearly review meetings and quarterly regional review meetings with State Education Secretaries and State Project Directors.

b)       Quarterly review meetings of State coordinators of important functional areas.

c)       National, Regional and State specific capacity building training programmes.

d)       Independent and regular field visits to monitor performance by Social Science Monitoring Institutes.

e)       Continuous visit to field by resource persons and suggestions for improvement

f)       Half yearly Joint Review Missions by Government of India, the State Governments and external funding agencies, if any.

g)       Independent assessment/studies to be carried out for independent feedback on implementation of the programme.

h)       A Computerized Educational Management Information System giving annual school based data with school and district report cards.

i)        An Educational Development Index (EDI) to assess State’s/District’s progress towards Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE)

j)        A set of Quality Monitoring Tools developed in collaboration with NCERT to provide quarterly and annual information on quality related indices.

k)       Results framework to measure outcomes against the pre decided targets and baseline.

l)        Statutory audit of SSA accounts annually by Chartered Accountant Firms (from CAG approved panel)

m)      Concurrent Financial Review of SSA accounts by Institute of Public Auditors of India (IPAI).

n)       Internal audit by the States.

o)       Community based monitoring with full transparency

p)       District Level Committee comprising local/public representatives to monitor the implementation of the SSA programme in the districts.

q)       Community ownership mandatory for preparation of District Elementary Education Plans

r)       Statement of expenditure in each school to be a public document

s)       Mandatory implementation of many activities by VEC

t)       State specific responsibilities to research and resource institutions for supervision,    monitoring, evaluation and research



41 Social Science Institutes of national stature have been given the work of Monitoring of implementation of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) in States & UTs. In larger States more than one Institute have been assigned the task of Monitoring .These Monitoring Institutes (MIs) are required to make field visit and report on progress of SSA at the ground level every six months.  The MI is expected to cover 25% of the Districts allotted to them in a period of six months so that all districts are covered in a two- year period. This cycle will be repeated every two years. The half yearly monitoring reports received from the Monitoring Institutes are available on the website-  SSA  programme  would  modify the terms of Reference of the Monitoring Institutes as and when  required.



                   The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan will have a community-based monitoring system. The Educational Management Information System (EMIS) will incorporate provision for correlation of school level data with community-based information from micro planning and surveys. Besides this, every school will have a notice board showing all the grants received by the school and the details thereof. All reports sent to the Block and the District level with regard to enrolment, attendance, incentive, etc. shall be displayed on the school notice board. Reporting formats will be simplified so that the output is demystified and anyone can understand the data. A school would be required to display the information it sends up so that attendance and performance of pupils is public knowledge. The EMIS shall form the basis of the periodic reporting system. Besides this, trainers will act as classroom process observers to record changes in classroom practices. Periodic monitoring teams will make random visits to selected schools and these will be discussed at various levels. The basic principle in monitoring will be its community ownership and periodic quality checks by external teams – external to the activity but internal to the system. To encourage independent feedback on programme implementation, research and resource institutions with proven excellence will be involved in monitoring at all stages.


1.4                  The State Implementation Societies (SIS) will also undertake intensive monitoring. Representatives of the National Mission for UEE and National level institutions like NCTE, NUEPA, and NCERT will also undertake periodic monitoring and provide resource support to the SIS to strengthen appraisal and monitoring systems. Efforts to associate autonomous institutions willing to take up State specific responsibilities for research and evaluation will also be made. Many independent institutions would also be associated in developing effective tools for conducting achievement tests, monitoring quality aspects of programme implementation, evaluation and research studies.

1.5               A total provision of up to Rs.1500 per school per year has been made for community-based monitoring, research, evaluation, etc. Rs.200 per school will be available at the National level. The Executive Committee of the State SSA mission will decide on the division of resources at various levels, from the State to the school from the balance Rs.1300 per school.

a.         The funds for monitoring will be used for carrying out the following activities:

                             (i)            Creating a pool of resource persons at national, state, district, sub district level for effective-field based monitoring.

                           (ii)            Providing travel grant and a very modest honorarium (as per State specific norm) to resource persons for monitoring.

                          (iii)            Providing regular generation of community based data.

                         (iv)            Conducting achievement tests, evaluation studies.

                          (v)            Undertaking research activities.

                         (vi)            Setting up special task force for low female literacy districts and for special monitoring of girls, SCs, STs.

                       (vii)            Incurring expenditure on Education Management Information System.

                      (viii)            Undertaking contingent expenditure like charts, posters, sketch pen, OHP pens etc. for visual monitoring systems

                         (ix)            Assessment and appraisal teams and their field activities.

                           (x)            Analyzing data at sub district/ district/State and national level.


b.        Norms for State/district/BRC/CRC/ School level expenditures for research, evaluation, supervision and monitoring will be decided by the Executive Committee in States/UTs.


c.        States would need to give priority to developing and regularly implementing, monitoring systems to measure quality related outcomes, inter alia, such as students learning outcomes, teacher performance, student and teacher attendance rates by gender and social categories, as also parameters for measuring changes in classroom practices, impact of teacher training, efficacy of textbooks and textual materials, quality of academic supervision provided by BRCs/CRCs/DIETs etc.


d.        State and district provisioning will include inter alia for EMIS, allocations for regular school mapping/micro planning for location of schools, other school infrastructure and updating of household data on 6-14 year old children’s educational status.


e.        Involvement of State SCERTs, DIETs and SIEMATs (where SIEMATs are functional), will be mandatory in the execution of this component.


f.          Involvement of other independent national and State level resource institutions in conducting REMS activities should be encouraged through appropriate MOUs/contracts


g.        Each State/UT SSA programme will set up a Research Approval Committee for processing and approving all research and evaluation studies to be undertaken at the State level.  Appropriate mechanisms should also be set up for district level by the State SSA programme of girls, especially those belonging to the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, is the primary focus in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.

(Ref:  F-2-3/2005 – EE.3 dated – 22nd February, 2008)


h.        Efforts will be made to mainstream gender concerns in all the activities under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan programme. Mobilization at the habitation/village/urban slum level, recruitment of teachers, upgradation of primary into upper primary schools, incentives like midday meals, uniforms, scholarships, educational provision like textbooks and stationery, will all take into account the gender focus. Every activity under the programme will be judged in terms of its gender component. Besides mainstreaming, special efforts like the Mahila Samakhya type of mobilization and organization, back-to school camps for adolescent girls, large-scale process based constitution of Mahila Samoohs, will also be attempted. The selection criteria take into account the low female literacy among the scheduled caste and scheduled tribe women.


1.6     Besides community based monitoring, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan will encourage independent research and supervision by autonomous research institutions. Institutions of proven excellence have been requested to take up State specific responsibilities. The focus in partnership with institutions will also be on developing capacities through the interaction in SCERTs /SIEMATs/DIETs to carry out research and evaluation tasks. Faculty / Department of Education in Universities would also be requested to participate in such activities under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. The Regional Institutes of Education (RIE) of NCERT will also be associated in these tasks.

1.7     Effective community based-monitoring requires demystification of processes. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan will make efforts to develop partnership between communities and research institutions in order to improve the quality of monitoring and research.


1.8      SSA being a programme with long term and far reaching objectives, regular and periodic financial monitoring is needed for the effective and efficient implementation of the programme.  Since annual audited accounts and reports on progress overview are received after the close of the financial year, some interim reports e.g. monthly, quarterly etc. are needed to monitor progress of implementation both from physical and financial angle.  Therefore, certain formats for quarterly financial report need to be prescribed to help in removing the bottlenecks, if any, for the fast and effective flow of funds to the district and sub district level.


1.9     The system of financial monitoring would also be important in developing demystified community based approaches that allow for social audit. All financial monitoring has to work within a system of social monitoring with full transparency. Joint training programmes for auditors, community leaders, teachers, etc. to understand and appreciate the context of universal elementary education would be made under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.

1.10   Since quality is a major concern under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, its monitoring will be a priority. Monitoring of quality will require an understanding of processes of programme implementation. Process and quality indicators would have to be developed as per felt needs in order to track the quality of programme implementation. Such efforts would require partnership with institutions, PRIs, School Committees, etc. Training and orientation programmes to develop appropriate monitoring formats, qualitative monitoring through process documentation, case studies to understand issues comprehensively, will be required.  The monitoring system under SSA will be multi pronged so that a constant strive for quality is maintained.

1.11    A set of quality monitoring tools has been developed in collaboration with NCERT, to provide quarterly and annual information on several quality related indices of SSA, covering:-

                             (i)            Student enrollment and actual attendance

                           (ii)            Pupil achievement levels

                          (iii)            Teacher availability and teacher training

                         (iv)            Classroom Practices

                          (v)            Academic supervisions of schools by Cluster and Block Resource Centres

                         (vi)            Community perceptions of school functioning

1.12    NCERT will undertake base line assessment of learning achievements at primary level in the Non-DPEP States and at upper primary level in all States in order to provide a base line for the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. These assessments must also take a larger view of the assessment process rather than simply a one-time assessment of achievements. Efforts to develop context specific item pools for competency testing must also be simultaneously made.


1.13    Monitoring of Programme by District Based Body :     A District Level Committee comprising public representatives would be constituted to monitor the implementation of the SSA programme in that district as per the following provisions:-


(a)             Composition of the District Level Committee:


i.                    All Members of Parliament, Members of the State Legislature and Members of the Zilla Parishad (wherever duly constituted), elected from that district/and/or urban bodies (duly constituted) as applicable.

ii.                   The District Magistrate/Collector/Deputy Commissioner/Chief Executive Officer of the Zilla Parishad/Urban local body will be the Member-Secretary.

iii.                 District Education Officer in-charge of SSA.

iv.                District Officers in-charge of Drinking Water Mission/Total Sanitation Programme/ICDS programme/Panchayati Raj/Labour/ Handicapped Welfare/Social Welfare/Minority Welfare etc.

v.                  Two NGO’s working on elementary education for SSA in the area, to be nominated by the District Magistrate/Collector/Dy. Commissioner/CEO Zila Parishad.

vi.                The senior-most Member of Parliament present in the meeting will chair the Committee on the day it meets.


     (b)      Terms of Reference of the District Level Committee


        i.                        The Committee will be apprised of the progress of the SSA implementation in the district, both in terms of key targets and achievements thereof, and also on outcome indicators, inter-alia, enrolment, dropout, learning achievement levels of students etc.

       ii.                        Suggestions of the members may be taken into consideration, within the parameters of the SSA guidelines and framework of implementation and the Approved Annual Work Plans & Budgets of the district, for improving SSA implementation at the local level.

     iii.                        The Committee may also examine the synergy and convergence of other related Government Departments in improving school infrastructure and other support services for benefit of children in the 6-14 years age group.

    iv.                        The Committee will meet once a quarter.


(Ref F.No.2-3/2005-EE.3 dated on 29.8.2007)


1.14    Monitoring of Programme by Village/School Based Body : “To provide for supervision and monitoring by Panchayat Raj Institutions over the village or school based bodies set up by the States/UTs through whom SSA is implemented at the grass-root level, the following arrangements be ensured:                                        

i.          There should be a Standing Committee or a sub-committee for education under the Gram Panchayat (GP), which would be the nodal body for all matters relating to elementary education.

ii.       That the school wise or village wise committees responsible for elementary education/SSA should be linked with the Sub-Committee of the GP in-charge of Education, as in (i) above, so that overall supervision of PRIs is there over the elementary education/SSA programmes.

iii.       That all tiers of the PRIs (village, block, district) should be given roles of supervision over the elementary education programmes/SSA. This can be done by State Government by defining the roles of Sub-Committee on Education of the GP; the Block Level Education Committee and the Education Sub-Committee of the Zilla Parishad.”

                                          (Ref No. F-2-3/2005-EE-3 Dated on 6.11.2006)

1.15        District Information System for Education (DISE)


1.15.1             A school based annual information system, called District Information System for Education (DISE), is already being implemented throughout the Country. Through the system, data on very important issues of a school like physical infrastructure and facilities, availability of teachers, enrolment and academic performances of children, training of teachers, etc. are collected, annually, with 30th September as the record date.


1.15.2           Using data thus collected, a fairly large number of indicators are generated for different levels. To illustrate, the school report card builds a scenario of a particular school with comparative status of others in the neighborhoods, block/district level averages, etc.  Similarly, reports at the sub-district, district and State levels are also generated.  The whole exercise is carried out utilizing the facilities available in the DISE software.


1.15.3          The relevant data should be utilized for the purpose of monitoring as well as planning; be it for micro-planning at the grass root level or for the AWP&B of a district/State. DISE based information and analysis throwing lights on infrastructure facility, access, retention, quality, teacher related issues may be immensely useful in the process of planning and even monitoring, evaluation and mid-course corrections. Teachers’ rationalization, prioritization of physical infrastructure and teachers’ training issues may be addressed most effectively by usage of DISE data.


1.15.4           Besides, the NUEPA has been bringing out annually publications titled ‘State Report Card’ and ‘District Report Cards’ based on the Data/  Reports received from the States .These reports should be taken into account for monitoring outcomes and similar efforts should be made at the State level



1.16.1             The National University of Educational Planning & Administration (NUEPA) has developed an Educational Development Index (EDI) to track progress of the States towards Universal Elementary Education (UEE), for Primary and Upper Primary levels as well as for a composite look at Elementary Education. The EDI ranking will encourage the States to improve their performance and have closer look at both the inputs and the outputs of the parameters that affect elementary education to a larger extent. It is expected that EDI will also enable more effective targeting of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) to the most needy regions. 


1.16.2           The EDIs are calculated based on a large number of variables picked up, mostly in derived form from the DISE data.  Educational Development Indices (EDIs) for each district clearly indicates the journey a district is to traverse to reach the overall goal of Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE).  A study of the related parameters would provide adequate insight to prioritize the activities which will ultimately improve the elementary education scenario in the district/State as well as to monitor the parameter that have low EDI value.  Efforts should be made by the States to develop sub district & school based EDIs.



1.2.          results Framework for Measuring Outcomes of Elementary Education


1.17.1             The thrust of the XIth Plan is “Quality with Equity”.  In keeping with the thrust strategies and approaches under the SSA are being targeted towards incentivisation of upper primary, addressing residual equity and improving the quality of learning.  It is important that measurable outcomes are defined simultaneously.


1.17.2             To measure the outcomes, a results framework that will identify the measurable indicators, inform about the baseline and the targeted results along with the data collection instrument as well as the frequency of measuring such outcomes has been developed.  The States/districts are expected to develop the State/district specific results framework on the suggested indicators.


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